The Gulf of Mexico, more than any other major deepwater region in the world, has experienced massive changes in the last five years with long-term implications for the future of the region and the GoM’s supply & demand effects on the global deepwater oil and gas market, Quest Offshore says in its report.
The worldwide financial crisis and subsequent recession, shale gas’ implications on U.S. natural gas prices and the aftermath of the Macondo incident have led to significant changes in the outlook for the region. Despite those overwhelming obstacles, the U.S. GoM’s future is bright with a pronounced recovery expected in all major market segments from drilling to subsea, floating production and marine construction.
Overall spending in the region is expected to increase significantly starting in 2013 up nearly 30 percent to $40 billion. Total expenditures are expected to reach a significant $167 billion in the 2013 to 2016 period. For the first time, 2012 is expected to represent an investment shift with deepwater CAPEX and OPEX spending surpassing that in shallow water. In the under developed ultra-deepwater frontier areas of the region, challenging technical and reservoir conditions will result in increased spending across the board, a trend expected to continue through the foreseeable future.
Five years ago the region was a mix of major and independent oil companies executing both oil and gas standalone and subsea tieback projects. In 2013 and beyond, Quest sees more oil dominance with offshore gas waning. Large international oil companies will play a larger role with the execution of standalone (hub) projects with niche-focused independents looking to infrastructure-led drilling around existing hubs and mega-independents continuing to grow their strategic portfolios in select basins.
In Quest Offshore’s latest market report, Quest Deepwater Review: Gulf of Mexico 2013 and Beyond, the reader will gain a comprehensive understanding of current trends and expectations from one of the leading deepwater basins, the U.S. Gulf of Mexico.
Leasing Activity Positive for Deep and Ultra-deepwater
Leasing activity is rightly seen as the furthest leading indicator for prospective oil and gas activity not only in the Gulf but throughout the world. Due to the relatively long lead times between leasing, drilling and production, leasing trends can be expected to provide insight on future activity for years to come. With one-third of active deepwater leases, oil majors and national oil companies are expected to continue to be the driving force for pushing the boundaries of the Gulf of Mexico’s development. Excluding Anadarko and Conoco, all recent frontier projects have been undertaken through operatorship’s of one of the majors or national oil companies (BP, Chevron, Exxon, Shell, Total, Statoil, Petrobras), and we expect this theme to persist moving forward.
Drilling Permitting on an Upward Trend
Drilling permit approvals are showing noticeable increases over the past six months with total counts back to pre-Macondo levels. As of the end of September there have been 78 new exploration drilling permits and 36 new development drilling permits approved over the year.
While raw permit counts are showing positive movement this year, the comparison in permits issued per project highlights the underlying cause for such steep increases in the first half of 2012. Multi-well projects (defined as five or more wells) have seen a record permitting pace since late 2011; examples of this trend include Chevron’s Jack/St. Malo Project, Shell’s Mars B Project, Hess’s Tubular Bells project, Chevron’s Big Foot and most recently the BP’s Atlantis North development, while true wildcat exploration permit numbers are still well below levels seen prior to the drilling moratorium.
Drilling Market Accelerating
Notable discoveries of ultra-deepwater fields in the Lower Tertiary continue to increase the reserve and production expectations for the region. The shift in the Gulf is most apparent in the floating rig market with four operators now possessing 50 percent of the contracted rig fleet. Ninety percent of rigs operating are high-spec and rated for ultra-deepwater.
Robust Outlook for Deepwater Development
Since 2008, the U.S. Gulf of Mexico has undergone a shift in project development mix from heavy in small, independent-operated subsea tiebacks to one that is grounded in fewer, larger subsea tiebacks and high-investment standalone developments developed by international oil companies and mega-independents.
This shift towards fewer, larger subsea tiebacks as well as increased FPS units will have profound effects on the future of the subsea sector as the hardware installed evolves as a direct result of fewer gas developments and deeper, more challenging fields. Subsea equipment manufacturers will experience fewer, but larger scope, award opportunities through the forecast period. As these developments move into more challenging areas, the value of these subsea production packages are expected to increase significantly as HP/HT trees and subsea processing become an enabler for these complex, capital-intensive projects.
This next wave of FPS developments is, for the most part, in ultra-deepwater and in more remote areas not currently connected to shallow water or onshore infrastructure. These developments will materially impact the pipeline and marine construction markets (SURF) as these production hubs are connected to existing export infrastructure through 2016 and beyond. The subsea tieback potential for these hubs is most likely to be seen in the latter half of this decade and into the following, with these latest hubs laying the foundation for the next generation of deepwater developments in the region.
- Gulf of Mexico poised for resurgence in 2013 (fuelfix.com)
In an interview on E&ETV yesterday, Cheniere CEO Charif Souki said that domestic natural gas prices could drop to $2 per million British thermal units as a result of improved drilling technologies, regardless of whether LNG exports are increased.
“The rationale is this is no longer an exploration play. We know where the resource is. This is now a technology play. Technology plays become better, not worse.
We are learning how to image better, so we know where we have to drill. Our drill bits are getting better, so we know how to manage them and get them to the right place faster and better with less intrusion.
John Berge was talking last week about being able to reduce the amount of water used in the fracking process by 80 percent over the next few years. So, this is going to become a better and better process,” he said.
“We’re very early in the learning curve and we’re going to be able to find this resource more easily, faster and cheaper over a long period of time.
Whatever we can do to export is not going to be sufficient to make any impact at all. Most of the studies talk about 20 cents, I would propose that 20 cents statistically is insignificant, because gas prices can go up or down 20 cents every week. So, over a 20 year period, if our impact by modeling is 20 cents, that’s fine,” he added.
Cheniere of USA is developing a project to add liquefaction and export capabilities to the existing infrastructure at the Sabine Pass LNG terminal.
The Liquefaction Project is being designed and permitted for up to four modular LNG trains, each with a nominal capacity of approximately 4.5 mtpa.
In November 2011, Sabine Liquefaction, a unit of Cheniere, entered into a lump sum turnkey contract for the engineering, procurement and construction of the first two trains of the project with Bechtel Oil, Gas and Chemicals.
Sabine Liquefaction has also entered into four long-term customer sale and purchase agreements for 16 mtpa of LNG volumes, which represents approximately 89 percent of the nominal LNG volumes.
- USA: Cheniere Urges FERC to Approve Sabine Pass Liquefaction Project (mb50.wordpress.com)
- Cheniere: Sabine 1,2 Train Construction Start in H1 2012 (USA) (mb50.wordpress.com)
- USA: Cheniere, KOGAS Ink Sabine Pass LNG Deal (mb50.wordpress.com)
- USA (Sabine Pass): BG Ups Sabine Pass LNG Volumes to 5.5 MTPA (mb50.wordpress.com)
- GAIL to buy 3.5 million tonnes of LNG from U.S. firm (mb50.wordpress.com)
- USA: Sabine Pass LNG Gets Cargo (mb50.wordpress.com)
- USA: Cheniere Plans Corpus Christi LNG Export Terminal (mb50.wordpress.com)
China’s demand for liquefied natural gas (LNG) is expected to surge five-fold to 44 million tonnes per annum (mtpa) by 2020, while the emergence of 10 new importing countries in Asia could add another 27 million tonnes of new demand each year, an executive from GDF Suez SA told an industry conference on Wednesday.
Booming Asian demand, combined with uncertainty over the pace of new supplies, could create lasting opportunities for supplies as far afield as the United States to flow into the Pacific, said Nicholas Zanen, vice-president of trading at U.S. energy company Cheniere Energy Inc .
Philip Olivier, president of GDF Suez’s LNG unit, said LNG demand in Asia and the Middle East was expected to grow by 95 million tonnes per year from 2010-2020 and although there was enough flexible supply in the medium term to sate Asian demand, new plants urgently needed to be build to meet long-term growth.
“We cannot underestimate LNG demand in China and India, and there is little additional volume available from the Atlantic Basin,” Olivier said.
GDF’s bullish forecast on China was in line with forecasts by state-owned China National Offshore Oil Corp, which estimated the country’s 2015 imports at 30 mtpa, driven by a surge in LNG-fuelled vehicles and development of LNG storage facilities.
China imported 9.4 million tonnes of LNG in 2010.
To ride on Asia’s growth, Olivier told Reuters that the company was focused on building a supply base in Australia via its proposed Bonaparte floating LNG project.
“Australia is our No.1 priority at the moment because of its stability and proximity to Asian markets,” he said.
Although Australia’s gas exports are set to triple by 2017 to overtake Qatar as the world’s top LNG exporter, Olivier said the supply growth would not be enough to take away the premium in Asian prices.
- LNG Demand East of Suez Expected to Surge (mb50.wordpress.com)
- Japan hopes to buy LNG from U.S. by 2015 (mb50.wordpress.com)
- Petronet in Talks to Buy Capacity at US, Australia LNG Terminals (mb50.wordpress.com)
- InterOil, Pacific LNG sign supply deal with Noble Clean Fuels (mb50.wordpress.com)
- Canada: Encana Optimistic About LNG Exports (mb50.wordpress.com)
- Canada: Kitimat LNG Wins Export Licence (mb50.wordpress.com)
- USA: Wartsila Wins LNG Propulsion Equipment Contract for Offshore Vessels (mb50.wordpress.com)